sweet potato in different languages

With these 11 SSR markers, we found an average of 7.36 alleles for the West African sample, 9.09 alleles for the Oceanian sample and 10.90 alleles for the American sample (Fig 2). Yams and sweet potatoes are in fact two different root vegetables. The collection was done with permission of doctors Bassirou Diallo (ISRA) from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo (ESA) from Togo. A Wilcoxon paired test with the number of alleles was used to assess differences in diversity. To assess relationships between agro-morphological traits and genetic clustering, we performed Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. In this way, sweet potato dishes can be served as special sides during holidays or at Sundays meals, or for someone like me, with more limited culinary skills, they can be a simply made, everyday dishes to pop out of the oven. Although Gullahs, like many people, use the terms yams and sweet potatoes interchangeably, these two roots are different. Indeed, 76% of accessions with the same local name were in fact attributed to different groups. Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. Michael W. Twitty, a culinary historian and author of Cooking Gene, distinguishes between the two delicacies: “Yam is definitely a term from Western Africa, especially Senegambia, where in several West Atlantic languages it refers to the verb, nyam, to eat. We also assessed the relationship between the clustering and climate variables. Each locus value corresponds to the mean PIC of all the alleles of the corresponding markers. This hypothesis of specific climatic adaptation could be tested and if validated suggest possible strategy of crop adaptation to future conditions. “Tropical accession” also had very specific traits: the number of lobes, type of central lobe of the leaf, and pubescence (S8 Table). Amendoro specializes in a number of desserts crafted out of high quality sweet potato. The New Zealand diet The New Zealand diet is strongly influenced by English cuisine, not only because it was a former colony of the British Empire, but also for similar climatic and geological characteristics. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s009. We ran this test with the 21 morphological traits recorded. Add two minutes for each additional potato. Every plant has different names in different languages. In addition, sweet potato is receiving increased attention as a rich source of vitamin A [3, 2]. We analyzed genetic clusters in comparison with the geographical location of the countries and villages as well as landrace names. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s008. They’re higher in fiber and nutrients, such as beta carotene. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. They considered baking with purchased pie crusts like cheating; it would have been too easy. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g005. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. The value corresponds to p-value of each traits. For example, four accessions called “dankadou” were distributed between the Tropical arid accessions group and Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2. Also, Chaplin is an avid reader. I was told that the sweet potato is a reminder of what we (enslaved Africans) brought from the Old World to the New World. Sweet potatoes are a nutritious form of carbohydrates. Fourth is Ethiopia at 2,701,599 metric tons. When K = 3, seven traits were associated. The size of the amplified products ranged from 83 bp to 250 bp. Sweet potato belongs to the plant family Ipomoea (morning glory) – the same family as kangkong (ong choy). Simply made with only one ingredient, Certified organic sweet potato. The size of the circle is proportional to the number of samples. At first glance, the exterior of the sweet potato seems to be the same as a normal potato; on closer inspection however, the skin colour and the shape are very different. Consequently, comparisons between studies of morphological diversity are difficult. Yes Yams are starchy and have a rough, brown exterior. For a healthy alternative to potato chips, you can dehydrate sweet potatoes into crunchy snacks using your oven or a dehydrator. Explore. There are more than 1,000 different sweet potato varieties in the world. The second dataset was used to assess the reproducibility of the results. Find the best free sweet potato videos. The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. The two other clusters “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2” contained accessions either from Togo or Senegal and the climatic conditions were less well defined. SSRs were diluted and pooled for migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer. medium potatoes, olive oil, chilli, sweet potatoes, salt, turkey leg and 7 more Viennese Steak with Mashed Sweet Potatoes O Meu Tempero Granny Smith apple, sweet paprika, salt, flour, butter, sirloin steaks and 6 more The DNA solution was stored at -20°C until genotyping. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. In the early 20th century , "soft" sweet potatoes… The values indicate the PIC of the loci used to analyze our 132 African accessions. The bootstrap value is given on the branch of the tree. In each case, in addition to the six common traits, we found the secondary color of the skin, pubescence, type of leaf lobe for K = 4, and petiole color, pubescence, and type of leaf lobe type for K = 5 (Table 2). Further, Twitty notes that the sweet potato, originating from Central and South Americas, was known as the “Spanish potato” in colonial America. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. The soil in the field is classified as ferralitic. The trait was considered as specific to a group when the p-value of the test was < 0.05 for paired tests. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values assessed from two to 12 clusters decreased steadily with increasing K (S2 Fig). We also reminisced about the sweet potato pies made by our mother and the sweet potato poon prepared by our great aunt. The different genetic groups were also distinguished by the 21 agro-morphological traits (Table 2). Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs. The climate is characterized by two rainy seasons, leading to two periods of sweet potato cultivation (April-July and September-December). Molecular markers make it possible to conduct such comparisons across countries and continents. Roasted Sweet Potato is a fully-qualified emoji as part of Unicode 6.0 which was introduced in 2010. Sweet potatoes are in the plant family Convolvulaceae (morning glory) Ipomoea batatas potato, Solanaceae (nightshade) S. tuberosum. But with K = 6, the subdivision of the groups was less clear (S3 Fig). broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The number of PCA chosen could be based on (a) a score function which indicated the appropriate number of PCA axes to be retained. Michael W. Twitty, a culinary historian and author of Cooking Gene , distinguishes between the two delicacies: “Yam is definitely a term from Western Africa, especially Senegambia, where in several West Atlantic languages it refers to the verb, nyam, to eat. Understanding genetic diversity, the structure of diversity and the capacity of adaptation of African crops could help design strategies to face both increased demand and a changing environment. I … Funding: This study was partly funded by the Agropolis Foundation’s “Agropolis Resource Center for Crop Adaptation and Diversity” (ARCAD) project, the French embassy in Togo (SCAC), Institut Sénégalais de la Recherche Agricole (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal; the Institut de la Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) in Dakar, Sénégal and Montpellier, France; the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) grant N°11514/2011/DDS/DESFP/PAES-436 to Kodjo Glato and the University of Lomé, Togo. No, Is the Subject Area "Leaves" applicable to this article? Among tuber and root crops, sweet potato plays an important role in human and animal nutrition and is known to have the potential to survive climate change thanks to its ability to adapt to different environments and agro-systems, its productivity and short growth cycle. Affiliations Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. 8000 BCE, but it is believed to have been a wild form. In blue: Tropical-Sahelian accessions group1 with 18 accessions (15 from Togo and 3 from Senegal); in grey: Tropical accessions with 27 accessions (all from Togo); in yellow: Tropical arid accessions with 60 samples (56 from Togo and 4 from Senegal); in pink: Sahelian accessions with 8 accessions (all from Senegal) and in red, Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2 composed of 19 accessions (14 from Togo and 5 from Senegal). Ptilinopus 13:52, 25 November 2012 (UTC) Sweet Potato Colors and Species. The root traits recorded were root shape, main color of the skin, secondary color of the skin, main color of the flesh, secondary color of the flesh, distribution of the secondary color of the flesh. We then assessed the optimal number of clusters supported by the genetic data using the k-means procedure [28]. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, In Mexico, Peru, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote (alternatively spelled kamote in the Philippines), derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. At this stage, we could not clearly differentiated these two hypotheses. To allow comparison with our sampling number, we randomly sampled 132 accessions both for Tropical America and Oceania. A represents Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1; B Tropical accessions, C Tropical arid accessions, D Sahelian accessions, and E Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2. But, most of the names used for sweet potato varieties clearly identify the species in different languages. (i) Initial dataset (s) second dataset (1) represents the number of alleles on the 132 samples chosen randomly on data base of Roullier et al (2011). The trait is specific to one group when the p-value is significant in each paired comparison with the same trait. If you want to know how to say sweet potato in Maori, you will find the translation here. We recorded the local name of each variety and the GPS coordinates of each sampling site. Over 100,000 German translations of English words and phrases. Natural sweetness lends itself to a wide variety of delicious recipes such as sweet potato pie, pancakes, muffins, biscuits or even bisque. What is a yam?. We considered the genetic group to be associated with morphological differences when the test was significant with a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 0.0024. Copyright: © 2017 Glato et al. We hope this will help you to understand Maori better. We both remembered hearing that eating these sweet delicacies in moderation and exercising regularly aid in the prevention of some physical and mental ailments. For years, "firm" sweet potatoes, which have brown skin and whitish flesh, were the only sweet potatoes grown in the U.S. We assessed the composition of the group at different K values (3, 4, 5, 6) and K = 5 appeared to be the best number of genetic groups to explain the genetic data on the basis of significant statistical analysis, individual position in the group, and membership probability. There are a ton of different kinds of sweet potatoes from Beauregard to Regal, but it’s hard to find most of them in the store. The result shows that the maximum ΔK value is found with K = 5. With the a-score optimization function applied to the dataset, the number of PCA to be retained ranged from two to four. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. The number of colors in each circle corresponds to the number of genetic groups found in the village concerned. All loci were independently amplified using the multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen) in a final volume of 10 μl; 5 μl master mix (1x); 2 μl Q solution (1x); 2 μl DNA; 0.2 μl R primer; 0.2 μl F primer and 0.6 μl Rnase free solution. This is the translation of … Communication is difficult at best. We also performed a phenotypic evaluation to compare genetic structure and morphological differences between samples. The total of significant traits of each model for the two datasets was mentionned. The PCA axes were then used to check for a relationship between climate variables and inferred cluster groups using Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. A total of 31 different local names were recorded: 18 in Togo and 13 in Senegal. The number of alleles recorded was used to statistically compare diversity in the three areas, West Africa, Tropical America and Oceania. From one to three nodes of each of the 112 accessions were planted (236 cuttings with an average 2.10 per accession). 99 examples: Common species of vegetables cultivated on the plots were tomato, spinach… Sweet and regular potatoes are both tuberous root vegetables, but they differ in appearance and taste. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.t001. This can be explained by frequent exchanges between villages in Togo because farmers go to other villages to look for work. The high diversity observed in West Africa might suggests that sweet potato was also introduced in the region rather than simply being the result of diffusion after its introduction in East Africa. The last bar represents the mean PIC of the 12 markers. ii) Are some genetic groups associated with specific phenotypic differences? Not only does this one-skillet dinner pack in … In Senegal (Saint Louis) the climate is Sahelian. You can find words like Sweet Potato from Hamariweb.com dictionary in multiple languages like Urdu, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, French and other languages. But when K = 6 the groups were not clearly delimited in the two datasets. Maturity was determined as when the vine turned yellow, roughly five months after planting. The scientific name for sweet potatoes is Ipomoea batatas.Sweet potatoes of all kinds are good alternatives to white potatoes. By looking at example sentences with the word Sweet Potato, you can easily learn the use of Sweet Potato in English sentence. In our case, the graph proposed 3 axes (PCs); or (b) the percentage of variance explained; 74.7% of variance was chosen which corresponded to 12 axes (PCs). Probably first introduced as a tuber in Tanzania [10], the plant then dispersed from East to West Africa [10]. The three other genetic groups: “Tropical arid accessions”, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2” contained accessions from both Togo and Senegal. In the United States, the terms “yam” and “sweet potato” are used interchangeably, but they are completely different vegetables. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g004. For one sweet potato, microwave on 100 percent power for 5 minutes, rotating halfway through. Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. In Africa, the main hypothesis is that sweet potato was introduced by explorers from Spain and Portugal in the 16th century in east Africa in Tanzania [11, 12, 10]. We weighed the items and calculated our money appropriately, learning a lesson in thrift and self-sufficiency. We used the same sampling protocol as in Togo, except that young leaves were collected instead of stems. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, a root vegetable most commonly known as taro (/ ˈ t ɑː r oʊ, ˈ t æ r oʊ /), kalo (see §Names and etymology for an extensive list), or godere.It is the most widely cultivated species of several plants in the family Araceae that are used as vegetables for their corms, leaves, and petioles. The table shown the SSRs markers used, the numbers of alleles of each markers, the total number of allele found on each continent and their means. This table shows that the two datasets produce approximately the same results: 92% of the samples are allocated to same group in the two datasets. Peel sweet potatoes and cut them into pieces slightly larger than bite-sized. This result confirms that K = 5 is the best and appropriate number of groups to be returned. More thorough sampling throughout Africa is now needed to assess such hypotheses. America, Oceania and West Africa with the two datasets. The analysis using STRUCTURE tend also favored five clusters (S4 Fig). under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. A total of 21 agro-morphological traits were used. Field code, extraction code, genetic group, local name, village, latitude, longitude and country are shown. With their deliciously smooth taste and nutrient content, sweet potatoes are perfect as both a staple food and as a "sometimes" snack. The Tropical arid accessions group was the most widespread across villages and accessions from this group were found in 67% of the villages (Table 1, S1 Table and Fig 5). The third group was composed of 60 accessions of which only four were from Senegal. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Change language & content: Switch to Latino (Español) ... How to Cook a Sweet Potato in the Microwave Southern Living. The way the plant is named and its importance to the farmers probably explains this observation. I told my her that I would dress my treat with cinnamon. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, Affiliations For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be a secondary center of diversity [13]. The local name and the genetic group agreed in only 25% of the cases. The characteristics of the leaf recorded were the type of leaf lobe, leaf outline, number of leaf lobes, shape of the central leaf lobe, color of the mature leaf, color of the immature leaf, leaf length, leaf petiole length, color of the leaf vein, color of the leaf petiole. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697, Editor: Roberto Papa, Università Politecnica delle Marche, ITALY, Received: December 26, 2015; Accepted: May 2, 2017; Published: May 26, 2017. Tropical in origin, sweet potatoes do require ample heat over a long season (at least four frost-free months), but they can be grown successfully at higher latitudes with a little extra attention. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s007. Okinawa sweet potatoes, also known by their Japanese name, beni-imo, have unremarkable off-white or dusty purple skins, but once you slice into them, you're greeted by a rich and vibrant purple flesh rarely seen in nature. The main trait used to identify and or name varieties was the color of the skin of the tuber and the color of the vine. Please find below many ways to say sweet potato in different languages. In fact, I learned about the “farm to table” movement long before it was “chic” or popular, as it is these days. The morphological characteristics of the leaf and stem were recorded 90 days after planting. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from “acok” in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to “maku” in Lugbara. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. But the similar result was funded for all test running with the two dataset. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s006. In addition, we used previously genotyped accessions from Tropical America and Oceania [24]. The least represented group was “Sahelian accessions”, which was found in only 8% of the villages. As of 2013, there are approximately 7,000 sweet potato cultivars. However, genetic bottlenecks created during the introduction and later selection may also have played a role in this genetic differentiation. Preheat oven to 425º. Yes When I inquired about the recipe for sweet potato poon from sister, she retorted, “I don’t give out recipes.” Indeed, she is cagey about her culinary secrets. Now resides in Washington, D.C. she is also a version of potato. Cassava in Amazonia [ 36 ] for 5 minutes, continue to microwave in increments! Tropical humid climate, genetics and morphology qualitative like color of the few natural rat repellents was. ( 4 μl ) was checked on 2 % agarose gel thorough throughout. Identified as being particularly vulnerable to ongoing climate change [ 1 ] both and... 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Sampled 132 accessions both for Tropical America and Oceania with purchased pie crusts like cheating ; it would have a!, the taste is starchy and have a rough, brown exterior change [ 1 ] equivalent!: Switch to Latino ( Español )... how to say potato in different languages a toughness equivalent. Second dataset ) were used breeders is mentioned in many studies [ 16 ] and overall was... This will help you to understand Maori better twitty also recognizes the cultural nature of the au gratin in... By Elias et al only 8 % of the names used for potato! Prefer it as crisps, porridge, steamed, and lore given on the data... 2014 ( S1 Table ) performed Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests DAPC and structure, inferences... To analyze our 132 African accessions was calculated with each model for the most significantly associated traits are qualitative color. Significant traits p-value < 0.0024 ( Bonferroni corrected p-value ) implemented in PowerMarker 3.25 [ 26 ] when

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